Empire auf deutsch

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The second German Constitution , adopted by the Reichstag on 14 April and proclaimed by the Emperor on 16 April, [20] was substantially based upon Bismarck's North German Constitution.

The political system remained the same. The empire had a parliament called the Reichstag , which was elected by universal male suffrage.

However, the original constituencies drawn in were never redrawn to reflect the growth of urban areas.

As a result, by the time of the great expansion of German cities in the s and first decade of the 20th century, rural areas were grossly over-represented.

Legislation also required the consent of the Bundesrat , the federal council of deputies from the 27 states. Executive power was vested in the emperor, or Kaiser , who was assisted by a chancellor responsible only to him.

The emperor was given extensive powers by the constitution. He alone appointed and dismissed the chancellor so in practice the emperor ruled the empire through the chancellor , was supreme commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and final arbiter of all foreign affairs, and could also disband the Reichstag to call for new elections.

Officially, the chancellor was a one-man cabinet and was responsible for the conduct of all state affairs; in practice, the State Secretaries bureaucratic top officials in charge of such fields as finance, war, foreign affairs, etc.

The Reichstag had the power to pass, amend, or reject bills and to initiate legislation. However, as mentioned above, in practice the real power was vested in the emperor, who exercised it through his chancellor.

Although nominally a federal empire and league of equals, in practice, the empire was dominated by the largest and most powerful state, Prussia.

Prussia stretched across the northern two-thirds of the new Reich and contained three-fifths of its population. The imperial crown was hereditary in the ruling house of Prussia, the House of Hohenzollern.

With the exception of — and —, the chancellor was always simultaneously the prime minister of Prussia. With 17 out of 58 votes in the Bundesrat , Berlin needed only a few votes from the smaller states to exercise effective control.

The other states retained their own governments, but had only limited aspects of sovereignty. For example, both postage stamps and currency were issued for the empire as a whole.

Coins through one mark were also minted in the name of the empire, while higher-valued pieces were issued by the states.

However, these larger gold and silver issues were virtually commemorative coins and had limited circulation. While the states issued their own decorations and some had their own armies, the military forces of the smaller ones were put under Prussian control.

Those of the larger states, such as the Kingdoms of Bavaria and Saxony, were coordinated along Prussian principles and would in wartime be controlled by the federal government.

The evolution of the German Empire is somewhat in line with parallel developments in Italy, which became a united nation-state a decade earlier.

Some key elements of the German Empire's authoritarian political structure were also the basis for conservative modernization in Imperial Japan under Meiji and the preservation of an authoritarian political structure under the tsars in the Russian Empire.

One factor in the social anatomy of these governments was the retention of a very substantial share in political power by the landed elite , the Junkers , resulting from the absence of a revolutionary breakthrough by the peasants in combination with urban areas.

Although authoritarian in many respects, the empire had some democratic features. Besides universal suffrage, it permitted the development of political parties.

In the process, he created a system with a serious flaw. There was a significant disparity between the Prussian and German electoral systems.

As mentioned above, the king and with two exceptions the prime minister of Prussia were also the emperor and chancellor of the empire — meaning that the same rulers had to seek majorities from legislatures elected from completely different franchises.

Universal suffrage was significantly diluted by gross over-representation of rural areas from the s onward. By the turn of the century, the urban-rural population balance was completely reversed from ; more than two-thirds of the empire's people lived in cities and towns.

Before unification, German territory excluding Austria and Switzerland was made up of 27 constituent states. These states consisted of kingdoms, grand duchies, duchies, principalities, free Hanseatic cities and one imperial territory.

The free cities had a republican form of government on the state level, even though the Empire at large was constituted as a monarchy , and so were most of the states.

The Kingdom of Prussia was the largest of the constituent states, covering two-third of the empire's territory. Several of these states had gained sovereignty following the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire , and had been de facto sovereign from the mids onward.

Others were created as sovereign states after the Congress of Vienna in Territories were not necessarily contiguous—many existed in several parts, as a result of historical acquisitions, or, in several cases, divisions of the ruling families.

Some of the initially existing states, in particular Hanover, were abolished and annexed by Prussia as a result of the war of Each component of the German Empire sent representatives to the Federal Council Bundesrat and, via single-member districts, the Imperial Diet Reichstag.

Relations between the Imperial centre and the Empire's components were somewhat fluid and were developed on an ongoing basis.

The extent to which the Emperor could, for example, intervene on occasions of disputed or unclear succession was much debated on occasion—for example in the inheritance crisis of the Lippe-Detmold.

Reichstag election results, The only minority language with a significant number of speakers 5. The non-German Germanic languages 0. Low German was spoken throughout northern Germany and, though linguistically as distinct from High German Hochdeutsch as from Dutch and English, is considered "German", hence also its name.

Danish and Frisian were spoken predominantly in the north of the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein and Dutch in the western border areas of Prussia Hanover , Westphalia , and the Rhine Province.

Polish and other Slavic languages 6. Generally, religious demographics of the early modern period hardly changed.

Confessional prejudices, especially towards mixed marriages, were still common. Bit by bit, through internal migration, religious blending was more and more common.

In areas affected by immigration in the Ruhr area and Westphalia, as well as in some large cities, religious landscape changed substantially.

This was especially true in largely Catholic areas of Westphalia, which changed through Protestant immigration from the eastern provinces.

Politically, the confessional division of Germany had considerable consequences. In Catholic areas, the Centre Party had a big electorate.

This began to change with the secularization arising in the last decades of the German Empire. Bismarck's domestic policies played an important role in forging the authoritarian political culture of the Kaiserreich.

Less preoccupied by continental power politics following unification in , Germany's semi-parliamentary government carried out a relatively smooth economic and political revolution from above that pushed them along the way towards becoming the world's leading industrial power of the time.

Bismarck's "revolutionary conservatism" was a conservative state-building strategy designed to make ordinary Germans—not just the Junker elite—more loyal to throne and empire.

According to Kees van Kersbergen and Barbara Vis, his strategy was:. He created the modern welfare state in Germany in the s and enacted universal male suffrage in the new German Empire in Bismarck's post foreign policy was conservative and sought to preserve the balance of power in Europe.

British historian Eric Hobsbawm concludes that he "remained undisputed world champion at the game of multilateral diplomatic chess for almost twenty years after , [devoting] himself exclusively, and successfully, to maintaining peace between the powers".

Bismarck's chief concern was that France would plot revenge after its defeat in the Franco-Prussian War.

As the French lacked the strength to defeat Germany by themselves, they sought an alliance with Russia, which would trap Germany between the two in a war as would ultimately happen in Bismarck wanted to prevent this at all costs and maintain friendly relations with the Russians, and thereby formed an alliance with them and Austria-Hungary, the Dreikaiserbund League of Three Emperors in The alliance was further cemented by a separate non-aggression pact with Russia called Reinsurance Treaty , which was signed in He once wrote that "the most brilliant victories would not avail against the Russian nation, because of its climate, its desert, and its frugality, and having but one frontier to defend", and because it would leave Germany with another bitter, resentful neighbour.

Meanwhile, the chancellor remained wary of any foreign policy developments that looked even remotely warlike. In , he moved to stop an attempted sale of horses to France on the grounds that they might be used for cavalry and also ordered an investigation into large Russian purchases of medicine from a German chemical works.

Bismarck stubbornly refused to listen to Georg Herbert zu Munster ambassador to France , who reported back that the French were not seeking a revanchist war, and in fact were desperate for peace at all costs.

Bismarck and most of his contemporaries were conservative-minded and focused their foreign policy attention on Germany's neighbouring states.

Most of the money went to developing nations such as Russia that lacked the capital or technical knowledge to industrialize on their own. The construction of the Baghdad Railway , financed by German banks, was designed to eventually connect Germany with the Turkish Empire and the Persian Gulf , but it also collided with British and Russian geopolitical interests.

Many consider Bismarck's foreign policy as a coherent system and partly responsible for the preservation of Europe's stability.

For instance, Kaiser Wilhelm II, who dismissed the chancellor in , let the treaty with Russia lapse in favor of Germany's alliance with Austria, which finally led to a stronger coalition-building between Russia and France.

Bismarck secured a number of German colonial possessions during the s in Africa and the Pacific, but he never considered an overseas colonial empire valuable due to fierce resistance to German colonial rule from the natives.

Thus, Germany's colonies remained badly undeveloped. Germans had dreamed of colonial imperialism since The largest colonial enterprises were in Africa, [33] where the Herero Wars in what is now Namibia in —07 resulted in the Herero and Namaqua Genocide [34].

By , Germany became the largest economy in Europe and the second largest in the world behind the United States. Previously, the United Kingdom held that spot.

Germany's main economic rivals were the United Kingdom and the United States. Throughout its existence, it experienced economic growth and modernization led by heavy industry.

In , it had a largely rural population of 41 million, while by this had increased to a predominantly urban population of 68 million.

For 30 years, Germany struggled against Britain to be Europe's leading industrial power. Representative of Germany's industry was the steel giant Krupp , whose first factory was built in Essen.

By , the factory alone became "A great city with its own streets, its own police force, fire department and traffic laws.

There are kilometres of rail, 60 different factory buildings, 8, machine tools, seven electrical stations, kilometres of underground cable and 46 overhead.

Under Bismarck, Germany was a world innovator in building the welfare state. German workers enjoyed health, accident and maternity benefits, canteens, changing rooms and a national pension scheme.

Lacking a technological base at first, the Germans imported their engineering and hardware from Britain, but quickly learned the skills needed to operate and expand the railways.

In many cities, the new railway shops were the centres of technological awareness and training, so that by , Germany was self-sufficient in meeting the demands of railroad construction, and the railways were a major impetus for the growth of the new steel industry.

However, German unification in stimulated consolidation, nationalisation into state-owned companies, and further rapid growth. Unlike the situation in France, the goal was support of industrialisation, and so heavy lines crisscrossed the Ruhr and other industrial districts, and provided good connections to the major ports of Hamburg and Bremen.

By , Germany had 9, locomotives pulling 43, passengers and 30, tons of freight, and forged ahead of France.

Industrialisation progressed dynamically in Germany, and German manufacturers began to capture domestic markets from British imports, and also to compete with British industry abroad, particularly in the U.

The German textile and metal industries had by surpassed those of Britain in organisation and technical efficiency and superseded British manufacturers in the domestic market.

Germany became the dominant economic power on the continent and was the second largest exporting nation after Britain.

Technological progress during German industrialisation occurred in four waves: Germany invested more heavily than the British in research, especially in chemistry, motors and electricity.

Germany's dominance in physics and chemistry was such that one-third of all Nobel Prizes went to German inventors and researchers. The German cartel system known as Konzerne , being significantly concentrated, was able to make more efficient use of capital.

Germany was not weighted down with an expensive worldwide empire that needed defense. Following Germany's annexation of Alsace-Lorraine in , it absorbed parts of what had been France's industrial base.

By , the German chemical industry dominated the world market for synthetic dyes. The three major firms had also integrated upstream into the production of essential raw materials and they began to expand into other areas of chemistry such as pharmaceuticals , photographic film , agricultural chemicals and electrochemicals.

Top-level decision-making was in the hands of professional salaried managers; leading Chandler to call the German dye companies "the world's first truly managerial industrial enterprises".

By the start of World War I — , German industry switched to war production. The heaviest demands were on coal and steel for artillery and shell production, and on chemicals for the synthesis of materials that were subject to import restrictions and for chemical weapons and war supplies.

This meant that Austria-Hungary, a multi-ethnic Empire with a considerable German-speaking population, would remain outside of the German nation state.

Bismarck's policy was to pursue a solution diplomatically. The effective alliance between Germany and Austria played a major role in Germany's decision to enter World War I in Bismarck announced there would be no more territorial additions to Germany in Europe, and his diplomacy after was focused on stabilizing the European system and preventing any wars.

He succeeded, and only after his ouster in did the diplomatic tensions start rising again. After achieving formal unification in , Bismarck devoted much of his attention to the cause of national unity.

He opposed conservative Catholic activism and emancipation, especially the powers of the Vatican under Pope Pius IX , and working class radicalism, represented by the emerging Social Democratic Party.

Prussia in included 16,, Protestants, both Reformed and Lutheran, and 8,, Catholics. Most people were generally segregated into their own religious worlds, living in rural districts or city neighbourhoods that were overwhelmingly of the same religion, and sending their children to separate public schools where their religion was taught.

There was little interaction or intermarriage. On the whole, the Protestants had a higher social status, and the Catholics were more likely to be peasant farmers or unskilled or semiskilled industrial workers.

In , the Catholics formed their own political party, the Centre Party , which generally supported unification and most of Bismarck's policies.

However, Bismarck distrusted parliamentary democracy in general and opposition parties in particular, especially when the Centre Party showed signs of gaining support among dissident elements such as the Polish Catholics in Silesia.

A powerful intellectual force of the time was anti-Catholicism , led by the liberal intellectuals who formed a vital part of Bismarck's coalition.

They saw the Catholic Church as a powerful force of reaction and anti-modernity, especially after the proclamation of papal infallibility in , and the tightening control of the Vatican over the local bishops.

The Kulturkampf launched by Bismarck — affected Prussia; although there were similar movements in Baden and Hesse, the rest of Germany was not affected.

According to the new imperial constitution, the states were in charge of religious and educational affairs; they funded the Protestant and Catholic schools.

In July Bismarck abolished the Catholic section of the Prussian Ministry of ecclesiastical and educational affairs, depriving Catholics of their voice at the highest level.

The system of strict government supervision of schools was applied only in Catholic areas; the Protestant schools were left alone.

Much more serious were the May laws of One made the appointment of any priest dependent on his attendance at a German university, as opposed to the seminaries that the Catholics typically used.

Furthermore, all candidates for the ministry had to pass an examination in German culture before a state board which weeded out intransigent Catholics.

Another provision gave the government a veto power over most church activities. A second law abolished the jurisdiction of the Vatican over the Catholic Church in Prussia; its authority was transferred to a government body controlled by Protestants.

Nearly all German bishops, clergy, and laymen rejected the legality of the new laws, and were defiant in the face of heavier and heavier penalties and imprisonments imposed by Bismarck's government.

By , all the Prussian bishops were imprisoned or in exile, and a third of the Catholic parishes were without a priest.

In the face of systematic defiance, the Bismarck government increased the penalties and its attacks, and were challenged in when a papal encyclical declared the whole ecclesiastical legislation of Prussia was invalid, and threatened to excommunicate any Catholic who obeyed.

There was no violence, but the Catholics mobilized their support, set up numerous civic organizations, raised money to pay fines, and rallied behind their church and the Centre Party.

Bismarck, a devout pietistic Protestant, realized his Kulturkampf was backfiring when secular and socialist elements used the opportunity to attack all religion.

In the long run, the most significant result was the mobilization of the Catholic voters, and their insistence on protecting their religious identity.

In the elections of , the Centre party doubled its popular vote, and became the second-largest party in the national parliament—and remained a powerful force for the next 60 years, so that after Bismarck it became difficult to form a government without their support.

Bismarck built on a tradition of welfare programs in Prussia and Saxony that began as early as in the s. In the s he introduced old-age pensions, accident insurance, medical care and unemployment insurance that formed the basis of the modern European welfare state.

He came to realize that this sort of policy was very appealing, since it bound workers to the state, and also fit in very well with his authoritarian nature.

The social security systems installed by Bismarck health care in , accident insurance in , invalidity and old-age insurance in at the time were the largest in the world and, to a degree, still exist in Germany today.

Bismarck's paternalistic programs won the support of German industry because its goals were to win the support of the working classes for the Empire and reduce the outflow of immigrants to America, where wages were higher but welfare did not exist.

One of the effects of the unification policies was the gradually increasing tendency to eliminate the use of non-German languages in public life, schools and academic settings with the intent of pressuring the non-German population to abandon their national identity in what was called " Germanisation ".

These policies often had the reverse effect of stimulating resistance, usually in the form of home schooling and tighter unity in the minority groups, especially the Poles.

The Germanisation policies were targeted particularly against the significant Polish minority of the empire, gained by Prussia in the partitions of Poland.

Poles were treated as an ethnic minority even where they made up the majority, as in the Province of Posen , where a series of anti-Polish measures was enforced.

Antisemitism was endemic in Germany during the period. Before Napoleon's decrees ended the ghettos in Germany, it had been religiously motivated, but by the 19th century, it was a factor in German nationalism.

The last legal barriers on Jews in Prussia were lifted by the s, and within 20 years, they were over-represented in the white-collar professions and much of academia.

On the other hand, the constitution and legal system protected the rights of Jews as German citizens.

Antisemitic parties were formed but soon collapsed. Bismarck's efforts also initiated the levelling of the enormous differences between the German states, which had been independent in their evolution for centuries, especially with legislation.

The completely different legal histories and judicial systems posed enormous complications, especially for national trade. While a common trade code had already been introduced by the Confederation in which was adapted for the Empire and, with great modifications, is still in effect today , there was little similarity in laws otherwise.

In , a common Criminal Code Reichsstrafgesetzbuch was introduced; in , common court procedures were established in the court system Gerichtsverfassungsgesetz , civil procedures Zivilprozessordnung and criminal procedures Strafprozessordnung.

In , a first commission was established to produce a common Civil Code for all of the Empire, an enormous effort that would produce the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch BGB , possibly one of the most impressive legal works in the world; it was eventually put into effect on 1 January All of these codifications are, albeit with many amendments, still in effect today.

The Empire's legislation was based on two organs, the Bundesrat and the Reichstag parliament. There was universal male suffrage for the Reichstag, however legislation would have to pass both houses.

The Bundesrat contained representatives of the states. Frederick was a liberal and an admirer of the British constitution, [57] while his links to Britain strengthened further with his marriage to Princess Victoria , eldest child of Queen Victoria.

With his ascent to the throne, many hoped that Frederick's reign would lead to a liberalisation of the Reich and an increase of parliament's influence on the political process.

The dismissal of Robert von Puttkamer , the highly-conservative Prussian interior minister , on 8 June was a sign of the expected direction and a blow to Bismarck's administration.

By the time of his accession, however, Frederick had developed incurable laryngeal cancer , which had been diagnosed in He died on the 99th day of his rule, on 15 June His son Wilhelm II became emperor.

Wilhelm II wanted to reassert his ruling prerogatives at a time when other monarchs in Europe were being transformed into constitutional figureheads.

This decision led the ambitious Kaiser into conflict with Bismarck. The old chancellor had hoped to guide Wilhelm as he had guided his grandfather, but the emperor wanted to be the master in his own house and had many sycophants telling him that Frederick the Great would not have been great with a Bismarck at his side.

Bismarck demanded that the German Army be sent in to crush the strike, but Wilhelm II rejected this authoritarian measure, responding "I do not wish to stain my reign with the blood of my subjects.

Unlike his grandfather, Wilhelm I, who had been largely content to leave government affairs to the chancellor, Wilhelm II wanted to be fully informed and actively involved in running Germany, not an ornamental figurehead, although most Germans found his claims of divine right to rule amusing.

As Hull notes, Bismarckian foreign policy "was too sedate for the reckless Kaiser". The new chancellors had difficulty in performing their roles, especially the additional role as Prime Minister of Prussia assigned to them in the German Constitution.

The reforms of Chancellor Leo von Caprivi , which liberalized trade and so reduced unemployment, were supported by the Kaiser and most Germans except for Prussian landowners, who feared loss of land and power and launched several campaigns against the reforms.

While Prussian aristocrats challenged the demands of a united German state, in the s several organizations were set up to challenge the authoritarian conservative Prussian militarism which was being imposed on the country.

Educators opposed to the German state-run schools, which emphasized military education, set up their own independent liberal schools, which encouraged individuality and freedom.

Artists began experimental art in opposition to Kaiser Wilhelm's support for traditional art, to which Wilhelm responded "art which transgresses the laws and limits laid down by me can no longer be called art".

At the same time, a new generation of cultural creators emerged. From the s onwards, the most effective opposition to the monarchy came from the newly formed Social Democratic Party of Germany SPD , whose radicals advocated Marxism.

The threat of the SPD to the German monarchy and industrialists caused the state both to crack down on the party's supporters and to implement its own programme of social reform to soothe discontent.

Germany's large industries provided significant social welfare programmes and good care to their employees, as long as they were not identified as socialists or trade-union members.

The larger industrial firms provided pensions, sickness benefits and even housing to their employees. Having learned from the failure of Bismarck's Kulturkampf , Wilhelm II maintained good relations with the Roman Catholic Church and concentrated on opposing socialism.

The government remained in the hands of a succession of conservative coalitions supported by right-wing liberals or Catholic clerics and heavily dependent on the Kaiser's favour.

Hindenburg took over the role of commander—in—chief from the Kaiser, while Ludendorff became de facto general chief of staff.

By , Germany was effectively a military dictatorship run by Hindenburg and Ludendorff, with the Kaiser reduced to a mere figurehead.

Wilhelm II wanted Germany to have her " place in the sun ", like Britain, which he constantly wished to emulate or rival.

With the encouragement or at least the acquiescence of Britain, which at this stage saw Germany as a counterweight to her old rival France, Germany acquired German Southwest Africa modern Namibia , German Kamerun modern Cameroon , Togoland modern Togo and German East Africa modern Rwanda , Burundi , and the mainland part of current Tanzania.

Islands were gained in the Pacific through purchase and treaties and also a year lease for the territory of Kiautschou in northeast China.

But of these German colonies only Togoland and German Samoa after became self-sufficient and profitable; all the others required subsidies from the Berlin treasury for building infrastructure, school systems, hospitals and other institutions.

Bismarck had originally dismissed the agitation for colonies with contempt; he favoured a Eurocentric foreign policy, as the treaty arrangements made during his tenure in office show.

As a latecomer to colonization, Germany repeatedly came into conflict with the established colonial powers and also with the United States, which opposed German attempts at colonial expansion in both the Caribbean and the Pacific.

Native insurrections in German territories received prominent coverage in other countries, especially in Britain; the established powers had dealt with such uprisings decades earlier, often brutally, and had secured firm control of their colonies by then.

The Boxer Rising in China, which the Chinese government eventually sponsored, began in the Shandong province, in part because Germany, as colonizer at Kiautschou , was an untested power and had only been active there for two years.

Eight western nations, including the United States, mounted a joint relief force to rescue westerners caught up in the rebellion.

During the departure ceremonies for the German contingent, Wilhelm II urged them to behave like the Hun invaders of continental Europe — an unfortunate remark that would later be resurrected by British propagandists to paint Germans as barbarians during World War I and World War II.

On two occasions, a French-German conflict over the fate of Morocco seemed inevitable. Upon acquiring Southwest Africa, German settlers were encouraged to cultivate land held by the Herero and Nama.

Herero and Nama tribal lands were used for a variety of exploitative goals much as the British did before in Rhodesia , including farming, ranching, and mining for minerals and diamonds.

In , the Herero and the Nama revolted against the colonists in Southwest Africa, killing farm families, their laborers and servants.

In response to the attacks, troops were dispatched to quell the uprising which then resulted in the Herero and Namaqua Genocide. The commander of the punitive expedition, General Lothar von Trotha , was eventually relieved and reprimanded for his usurpation of orders and the cruelties he inflicted.

These occurrences were sometimes referred to as "the first genocide of the 20th century" and officially condemned by the United Nations in In a formal apology by a government minister of the Federal Republic of Germany followed.

Accordingly, they asked to have construction halted, to which Germany and the Ottoman Empire acquiesced. Wilhelm II and his advisers committed a fatal diplomatic error when they allowed the " Reinsurance Treaty " that Bismarck had negotiated with Tsarist Russia to lapse.

Germany was left with no firm ally but Austria-Hungary , and her support for action in annexing Bosnia and Herzegovina in further soured relations with Russia.

By Wilhelm had completely picked apart the careful power balance established by Bismarck and Britain turned to France in the Entente Cordiale.

Germany's only other ally besides Austria was the Kingdom of Italy , but it remained an ally only pro forma. When war came, Italy saw more benefit in an alliance with Britain, France, and Russia, which, in the secret Treaty of London in promised it the frontier districts of Austria where Italians formed the majority of the population and also colonial concessions.

Germany did acquire a second ally that same year when the Ottoman Empire entered the war on its side, but in the long run supporting the Ottoman war effort only drained away German resources from the main fronts.

This unconditional support for Austria-Hungary was called a "blank cheque" by historians, including German Fritz Fischer. Subsequent interpretation — for example at the Versailles Peace Conference — was that this "blank cheque" licensed Austro-Hungarian aggression regardless of the diplomatic consequences, and thus Germany bore responsibility for starting the war , or at least provoking a wider conflict.

Germany began the war by targeting its chief rival, France. Germany saw France as its principal danger on the European continent as it could mobilize much faster than Russia and bordered Germany's industrial core in the Rhineland.

Unlike Britain and Russia, the French entered the war mainly for revenge against Germany, in particular for France's loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany in The German high command knew that France would muster its forces to go into Alsace-Lorraine.

Aside from the very unofficial Septemberprogramm , the Germans never stated a clear list of goals that they wanted out of the war.

Germany did not want to risk lengthy battles along the Franco-German border and instead adopted the Schlieffen Plan , a military strategy designed to cripple France by invading Belgium and Luxembourg , sweeping down to encircle and crush both Paris and the French forces along the Franco-German border in a quick victory.

After defeating France, Germany would turn to attack Russia. The plan required violating the official neutrality of Belgium and Luxembourg, which Britain had guaranteed by treaty.

However, the Germans had calculated that Britain would enter the war regardless of whether they had formal justification to do so.

However, the evolution of weapons over the last century heavily favored defense over offense, especially thanks to the machine gun, so that it took proportionally more offensive force to overcome a defensive position.

This resulted in the German lines on the offense contracting to keep up the offensive time table while correspondingly the French lines were extending.

In addition, some German units that were originally slotted for the German far right were transferred to the Eastern Front in reaction to Russia mobilizing far faster than anticipated.

The combined affect had the German right flank sweeping down in front of Paris instead of behind it exposing the German Right flank to the extending French lines and attack from strategic French reserves stationed in Paris.

Attacking the exposed German right flank, the French Army and the British Army put up a strong resistance to the defense of Paris at the First Battle of the Marne , resulting in the German Army retreating.

The aftermath of the First Battle of the Marne was a long-held stalemate between the German Army and the Allies in dug-in trench warfare.

German Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn decided to break away from the Schlieffen Plan and instead focus on a war of attrition against France.

Falkenhayn targeted the ancient city of Verdun because it had been one of the last cities to hold out against the German Army in , and Falkenhayn knew that as a matter of national pride the French would do anything to ensure that it was not taken.

He expected that with proper tactics, French losses would be greater than those of the Germans and that continued French commitment of troops to Verdun would "bleed the French Army white" and then allow the German army to take France easily.

In , the Battle of Verdun began, with the French positions under constant shelling and poison gas attack and taking large casualties under the assault of overwhelmingly large German forces.

However, Falkenhayn's prediction of a greater ratio of French killed proved to be wrong.



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